## Data Mining - Comprehensive Paper Solution

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Question:
For the following vectors x and y, calculate the cosine similarity and euclidean distance measures:
x =(4,4,4,4), y=(2,2,2,2)

Solution:

Cosine
x ● y = 4*2 + 4*2 + 4*2 + 4*2 = 32
||x|| = sqrt(4*4 + 4*4 + 4*4 + 4*4) = sqrt (64)   = 8
||y|| = sqrt(2*2 + 2*2 + 2*2 + 2*2) = sqrt (16) = 4
cos(x,y) = (x ● y) /  (||x||*||y||) = (32)/ (8*4)
cos(x,y) = 1

Euclidean
d(x, y) = sqrt((4-2)^2 + (4-2)^2 + (4-2)^2 + (4-2)^2)
Euclidean distance = 4

Question:
Consider the one-dimensional data set shown on the below table

 X 0.6 3.2 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.6 5.8 7.1 9.5 Y - - + + + - - + - -

Classify the data point x=5.0 according to its 3- and 9- nearest neighbors (Using majority Vote)

We need to first find the difference of each data set with respect to x=5.0, Refer the below table for the same.

 x X Difference (x & X) Y 5.0 0.6 4.4 − 5.0 3.2 1.8 − 5.0 4.5 0.5 + 5.0 4.6 0.4 + 5.0 4.9 0.1 + 5.0 5.2 0.2 − 5.0 5.6 0.6 − 5.0 5.8 0.8 + 5.0 7.1 2.1 − 5.0 9.5 4.5 −

Using 3- nearest neighbors method, 3 Closest points to the point x=5.0 will be the one who has least difference among them - > 4.9, 5.2, 4.6
Classes ->   +
Using Majority Vote, 3-nearest neighbor: +

Using 9- nearest neighbors method, 9 Closest points to the point x=5.0 will be the one who has least difference among them - > 4.9, 5.2, 4.6, 4.5, 5.6, 5.8, 3.2, 7.1, 0.6
Classes -> +  + +  +
Using Majority Vote, 9-nearest neighbor:

Question:
Suppose a group of 12 sales price records has been sorted as follows:
5; 10; 11; 13; 15; 35; 50; 55; 72; 90; 204; 215:
Partition them into three bins by each of the following methods.
(a) equal-frequency partitioning
(b) equal-width partitioning
(c) clustering

(a) equal-frequency (equidepth) partitioning:
Partition the data into equidepth bins of depth 4: [given as n=4]
Bin 1: 5, 10, 11, 13
Bin 2: 15, 35, 50, 55
Bin 3: 72, 90, 204, 215

(b) equal-width partitioning:
Partitioning the data into 3 equi-width bins will require the width to be (215−5)/3 = 70.
We get interval like- (1,70),(71,140),(141,210),(211,280)
Bin 1: 5, 10, 11, 13, 15, 35, 50, 55
Bin 2:72, 90
Bin 3: 204
Bin 4: 215

(c) clustering:
Using K-means clustering to partition the data into three bins we get
Bin 1: 5, 10, 11, 13, 15, 35
Bin 2: 50, 55, 72, 90
Bin 3: 204, 215

## Software Project Management - Comprehensive Paper Solution

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Question:
1. Pick the odd one out and say why?:
a. WBS
b. Gantt chart
c. Prototype
d. Slip Chart
e. Time chart

Answer: c. Other four relates to methods of project scheduling.

Question: How do you create agile processes to manage unpredictability?

Answer:  Software increments must be delivered in short time periods and Software processes must adapt to changes incrementally

Question: Which of the following does not take account of the dependencies between activities?
a. Activity network
b. Resource histogram
c. Work breakdown structure
d. Gantt chart

Question:  Based on what SDLC deliverable, acceptance criteria for a project be derived and why and also give one example of NFR acceptance criteria.

Answer: The acceptance criteria should be derived from the Requirements Specification, which is where the users’ stated needs are documented. Eample, ‘a response time of less than 2 seconds for 90% of transactions’ is a lot more precise than ‘a fast response time’.

Question:  Explain the difference between effort and elapsed time. What is the significance of this difference for project planning purposes?

Answer: Effort is the total volume of work involved in a task and is best thought of as how long it would take to accomplish if one person were assigned to it.  Elapsed time, on the other hand, is how long the task will take from start to finish and this will depend on the effort involved, how many people are assigned to the task and what delays or external dependencies are involved.

Question:  Compute the function point value, corresponding effort (state your assumption) and the Minimum time to develop for that effort for a project with the following information domain characteristics.
Number of user inputs.                 - 32
Number of user outputs.              - 60
Number of user inquiries.             - 24
Number of Files.                              - 8
Number of external interfaces.   - 2
Assume that all complexity adjustment values are average.                                        Marks  10

32 X 4 = 128
60 X 5 = 300
24 X 4 = 96
8 X 10 = 80
2 X 7 = 14
So, Count Total is equal to 618.
FP = Count Total X [0.65 + 0.01 X Summation (Fi)]
FP = 618 X [0.65 + (0.01 X 30)] = 587.10.

Effort:  assumption : 1FP/person/day or any similar no. = 587.10X1= 587 persondays. (persondays is important)
Duration: use the formula :  2.5*(Effort)exponent   Exponent can be :0.32,0.35,0.38

Question: Read the following project scenario and suggest your best approach by precisely answering the questions (make your own assumptions and state them clearly)
You are currently the Project Manager (PM) for the first development project of EuroShell—the prestigious customer who has recently signed an MoU with your company—XcelPro--for a multi-million-dollar business over the next 5 years. The project spans a period of 9 months and it involves several new technologies/tools. In addition, the customer keeps changing the requirements at an average rate of 1-2 change-requests (CR) per month. You are asked to send regular weekly status reports to the customer’s PM. The customer has not raised any major issue (nor responded to your regular status reports) till the final product is delivered for acceptance testing (UAT) during which your Delivery Head (your boss) received a major escalation (mail) from the customer (with a copy to XcelPro’s CEO) citing various defects observed and in turn seriously doubting XcelPro’s capability to develop and deliver software product.

Q1) You are asked to prepare a report/PPT as response to the escalation mail by holding a meeting via video conference call with customer.  Who are all the people to be involved in the meeting? What are agenda/items in your report/PPT? What are your recommended methods/techniques for presentation of data/issues so that the meeting concludes well with renewed trust in the company’s management and its QMS?  5 Marks

Q2) What was the format/Template of your project report?  Why do you think your customer did not respond to your regular weekly status reports (and of course, jumped with an escalation only at the end of delivery)? What factors (internal/external) contributed to this escalation?  If you were to redesign your project status report to elicit frequent responses from customers, what would you do?   5 Marks